Hardware aspect: Plotters microfilm, display, graphic tables, light pens, other graphical input aids, facsimile and its problems. Refresh/display, refresh buggers, charging images light-pen interaction. Two and three dimensional transformations, perspective, chipping algorithms. Amode’s method, shading, data reduction for graphical input, introduction of character recognition. Curve synthesis and fitting. Controlling, wing, structures, versus doubly linked bits hierarchical data structures, organization for interactive graphics.